The incident happened around 11.30pm last night within the grounds of the Diageo plant in Leven.
A 40-year-old man was carrying out his duties on the site when he noticed three men illegally on the premises and gave chase to them.
Upon apprehending one of the males, he was assaulted with a weapon, sustaining stab wound to his abdomen.
The suspects made off in the direction of Kennoway or possibly the Broom area of Leven. The security officer was taken to Ninewells hospital where he received treatment for a non-life threatening injury.
Anyone with information is asked to come forward.
All three suspects are described as being aged between 20 and 30 years. One of the suspects was wearing jogging bottoms and a hooded top.
Detective Inspector Chris Mill from Levenmouth CID said: “The victim has sustained a very painful, but thankfully, not life-threatening injury, while carrying out his security duties and we are treating this incident with the utmost seriousness.